Genetic polymorphisms identified from genomic sequencing can be used to track changes in parasite populations through time. Such tracking is particularly informative when applying control strategies and evaluating their effectiveness. Using genomic approaches may also enable improved ability to categorise populations and to stratify them according to the likely effectiveness of intervention. Clinical applications of genomic approaches also allow relapses to be classified according to reinfection or recrudescence. These tools can be used not only to assess the effectiveness of malaria interventions but also to appraise the strategies for malaria elimination.